This is the last issue of Pro et Contra. The journal will no longer be published in the format known to its readers for many years. The last issue continues—and concludes—with the scenarios of Russia’s development. This time, the authors analyze the impact of the Ukrainian crisis on the country’s future.

  • Nationalism in Russia: Public Sentiments and State Policy

    The problems of Russian nationalism—nationalist sentiments among the Russian people and pertinent government policies—are especially relevant in view of the policy of protecting “ours” in Crimea and eastern Ukraine.

  • The Church, State and Society in Countries of Eastern Christianity

    Svetlana Solodovnik, Viktor Yelensky, Vitalie Sprinceana, Hovhannes Hovhannisyan, Aleksey Bogdanovsky, Maria Falina, Kirill Rogov, Alexander Golts, Irina Semenenko

    During the past year the Russian state has made new important overtures to the Russian Orthodox Church, and official rhetoric has grown increasingly similar to that of the Church.

  • Central Asian States and International Actors

    Marlene Laruelle, Alexey Malashenko, Oleg Chervinskiy, Jeffrey Mankoff, Raffaello Pantucci, Alexandros Petersen, Martha Brill Olcott, Ella Paneyakh, Tatiana Vorozheykina, Sergey Guriev, Pyotr Cheryomushkin, Igor Zevelev

    Since they gained independence over two decades ago, all of the Central Asian states have successfully created new national identities. Despite the similarity of their political regimes, the countries of Central Asia differ in a number of areas—relations among them are not always friendly, and their foreign policies are guided by different factors.

  • Moscow as Physical and Social Space

    Natalia Zubarevich, Alla Makhrova, Tatiana Nefyodova, Andrey Treyvish, Olga Vendina, Aleksey Levinson, Stanislav Lvovskiy, Boris Grozovskiy, Lev Gudkov, Michael Mazarr, Ivan Krastev, Ilya Zaslavskiy, Alexey Miller, Alexey Makarkin

    Moscow is home to Russia’s gigantic government apparatus and the headquarters of its largest business companies. It is a sprawling metropolis that contains a growing number of new residents.

  • Russia: A Look Forward From 2012

    Kirill Rogov, Henry Hale, Samuel Greene, Jens Siegert, Boris Makarenko, Nikolay Petrov, Richard Sakwa, Natalia Zubarevich, Mikhail Denisenko, Pavel Baev, Nora Fisher Onar, Alexander Kustarev, Jonathan Mirsky, Martyn Ganin

    The growing uncertainty surrounding Russia’s future, even in the short-term, has motivated the participants of the Carnegie Moscow Center’s “Russia-2020” project to resume work on a range of predictive scenarios and to extend the timeline until 2025.

  • Societal Shifts in Russia

    Lev Gudkov, Svetlana Solodovnik, Olga Troitskaya, Alla Anisimova, Olga Echevskaya, Olga Malinova, Alexey Miller, Ivan Grigoriev, Filipp Chapkovsky, Francis Fukuyama, Pyotr Cheryomushkin

    There is a growing and irreparable rift between the government and its most modernized Russian constituencies. Relations and interactions between Russians who are more and less modernized will define the country's future development.

  • The Crisis of European Unity

    Ivan Krastev, Mark Leonard, Jan Techau, Alexey Miller, Alexander Kustarev, Fedor Lukyanov, Lucan Way, Vladimir Gelman, Yasmine El Rashidi, Ekaterina Demintseva, Alexey Arbatov, Samuel Greene

    A united Europe faces challenges beyond the eurozone crisis and the Greek meltdown: citizens are increasingly raising their voice against the expectation that they should sacrifice their own well-being for the sake of a phantom solidarity.

  • Twenty Years Without Soviet Power

    Boris Dubin, Clifford Gaddy, Barry Ickes, Alexander Zaslavsky, Nikolay Petrov, Michael Dobbs, David Remnick, Stephen Hanson, Alexander Kustarev, Igor Fediukin, Boris Makarenko, Konstantin von Eggert

    In the wake of the twentieth anniversary of the collapse of Soviet communism, the authors of this issue examine aspects of post-Soviet development, including public opinion, the economy, and the state, and how they have evolved over the course of the past twenty years.

  • Post-Soviet Political Systems

    Andrei Ryabov, Alexander Iskandaryan, Grigory Ioffe, Nicu Popescu, Olexiy Haran, Alexey Malashenko, Ivan Krastev, Olga Malinova, Evgeny Finkel, Maciej Janowski, Walter Laqueur, Viktor Shnirelman, Sergey Kravchenko

    While new nation- and state-building processes in the former Soviet Union draw opportunistically on their Soviet heritage, a new nationalism is bringing the states of the region inexorably further from each other and their shared past.

  • Russia-2020. Part II

    Sam Greene, Lev Gudkov, Jens Siegert, Natalia Zubarevich, Vladimir Milov, Daniel Treisman, Dmitri Trenin, Filipp Chapkovskiy, Mary McAuley, Alexander Kustarev, Sergey Golunov, Sergey Peregudov

    Participants of “Russia-2020” project continue to explore the factors that shape Russia’s development, the various crossroads that lie ahead, and the risks that Russia may face.

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